You can pick and choose from the following list. Lead time will vary based on the test chosen.
|S.No.||Test Types/Parameter||Lead Time|
|1||Biomethane potential (BMP) Test of a substrate||8 weeks|
|2||Volatile Fatty Acid Spectrum (C2 – C6)||3 weeks|
|3||TS/ DM and oTS/oDM||1 week|
|13||Silica content||1 week|
|14||Ultimate Analysis (C, N, S)||2 weeks|
Biomethane potential (BMP) Test of a substrate
Carrying out a BMP test for a feedstock gives important information on how much biogas will be produced from the feedstock and how fast the degradation process will be. Anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste such as bio-waste, sludge, cattle manure, energy crops, and other biomasses, for bio-energy production, is a widely applied technology used by a variety of Decision Makers.
BMP Lab Tests are a key parameter for assessing design, economic and managing issues for the full-scale implementation of anaerobic digestion processes. Various beneficiaries of BMP test and corresponding attributed benefits is as listed beneath:
Anaerobic Digestion – Consulting: BMP lab tests support the analysis effort in recognizing feasible and unfeasible anaerobic digestion projects and to fine-tune and optimize current and future projects to maximize biomethane production.
Anaerobic Digestion – Developers: BMP lab tests reinforce the credibility of the financials during the
the due-diligence process by offering quantitative lab test results for current and future projects.
Anaerobic Digestion – Engineering: Whether you are working with anaerobic wastewater treatment or anaerobic digestion of high solids/high-strength wastes in the public or private sectors, BMP testing should be included in the overall design and operation of the project.
Anaerobic Digestion – Financial: BMP lab tests substantiate the cost justification and projected revenue stream during the due-diligence process by offering quantitative lab test results for current and future projects.
Anaerobic Digestion – Management: Conducting BMP lab tests on a regular basis plays a critical role in keeping Anaerobic Digesters operating at Peak Performance.
Volatile Fatty Acid Spectrum (C2 – C6)
Various acids (Acetic Acid, Propionic Acid, Butyric acid, Valeric Acid, or branched isomers of them ) are produced during further degradation of simple sugar, amino acids, and long-chained fatty acids, which in turn are derived from carbohydrate, protein, and fatty components respectively in the feedstock.
Further, these are the basic intermediate products formed during the anaerobic digestion process and act as a substrate for methanogens leading to methane production. If Fatty acids tend to accumulate in higher concentrations, this often means that methanogenesis, the biological transformation to methane, is inhibited. Monitoring the concentrations of the individual volatile fatty acids in the digester gives the best information on the state of the process. Their analysis can give direct feedback on the interaction and inhibition of the different groups of micro-organisms in the reactor. Moderate accumulation of acetic acid in the digester is normal, as acetic acid is the final precursor to methane. A slight accumulation of propionic acid is tolerable. The ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid is an especially good indicator of process stability. The accumulation of butyric or valeric acid, and especially of their branched isomers, is normally a sign of severe process instability.
TS/DM and oTS/oDM
The TS or DM content in a digester can be used as an indicator of the viscosity of the fermentation broth in the reactor. Another feedstock parameter, the organic dry matter (oDM) represents the organic fraction which is the source from which biogas is produced and is therefore very important.
In many feedstocks, the ash content is quite low, so in practice, total solids (TS) content can provide sufficient information (TS equals oDM plus ash).
In CSTR reactors, the viscosity should not increase a certain level because then stirring problems can occur or the digester content cannot be pumped anymore. In wet fermentation systems that represent the majority of the existing biogas processes, TS concentration should normally not exceed 10% mark. This will ensure ease of pumping and mixing of digester contents.
Measuring of NH4-N helps to detect rapid changes in ammonia concentrations which can provoke process inhibition. An interesting aspect is that although high NH4-N concentrations can lead to inhibitory NH3(aq) concentrations, at the same time high NH4-N concentrations can lead to an increase in buffer capacity.
As a consequence, anaerobic digestion processes can to an extent operate in a stable way at high NH4-N concentrations. The exact limit up to which a stable degradation process is possible depends on temperature, pH, and the performance of the microorganisms. VFA will often be accumulated in the biogas plant, although the degradation process operates in a stable manner. High amounts of NH4-N increase the buffering capacity which supports a stable process. Typically, under low to moderate NH4-N concentrations, the process can withstand quite high impacts from destabilising factors, such as changes in pH, retention times, additional inhibiting factors, etc. Conversely, at high NH4-N concentrations a small pH change, for example, can lead to sudden process instability. At high NH4-N, process imbalances occur faster and it is more difficult to restore stable conditions. In addition, VFA may accumulate in the process (and remain in the digestate) although the degradation process is proceeding in a stable manner. Thus, in practice, however, operating a stable process at high NH4-N concentrations can be more challenging as it is more sensitive to negative process influences. So, if an imbalance emerges it can be more drastic than at low nitrogen concentrations.
The undissociated form of free hydrogen sulphide (H2S(aq)) is known to be inhibitory. In addition, hydrogen sulphide precipitates many metal ions which can have a negative effect on the bioavailability of trace elements including iron.
The concentration of H2S(aq) can be calculated by measuring the concentration of H2S in the gas phase as well as the temperature and pH of the reactor. Practical experiences have shown that H2S(aq) can become problematic at much lower concentrations, especially when coupled with other inhibitory components such as ammonia.
The alkalinity ratio is a two-point titration measurement which determines the ratio of the intermediate alkalinity (IA) over the partial alkalinity (PA). In German literature, the parameter is called FOS/TAC.
The first parameter, the intermediate alkalinity, indicates the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and is an important indicator of process problems. The second parameter, the partial alkalinity, represents the alkalinity of the bicarbonates, and is a measure of the buffer capacity in the digester. The buffer capacity is important in the biogas process so that moderate accumulation of volatile fatty acids does not cause a decrease in the pH which may ultimately lead to an abrupt drop or end of biogas production.
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) represents the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria and other microorganisms while they decompose organic matter under aerobic (oxygen is present) conditions over a period of 5 days at a specified temperature.
Determining how organic matter affects the concentration of dissolved oxygen in a water body is integral to water-quality management.BOD is used to check compliance to effluent discharge norms in effluent treatment plants and serves as an index of the degree of organic pollution in water.
The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a parameter that indicates the total chemically oxidisable material in the sample and therefore a parameter that indicates the energy content (or organic pollution) of a feedstock.
For liquid feedstocks like wastewater, VS (or TS) are often not the right parameters to be measured because the organic substances present (like acetic acid, ethanol, etc.) cannot be determined. In these cases, a COD (chemical oxygen demand) measurement is applied.
Digestate from biogas plants contains Organic Carbon which tends to improve the condition of the soil by and has the function of improving the growing condition of crops. So, in other words, measuring the TOC of digestate in real terms determine its quality.
Soil contains a large amount of organic matter, which plays a key role in plant growth and is useful in improving and stabilizing the productivity of agricultural crops Accordingly, determining the organic carbon content in soil provides a useful index for stable growth of agricultural crops and plants.
Nitrogen, P2O5, K2O
Estimating the NPK values of fertilizer can help one select the right fertilizer mix that’s appropriate for a given type of plant/ crop grown and the natural nutrient value of the soil in which it is to be grown.
All plants need nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium to grow. Without enough of any one of these so-called macro-nutrients, a plant/ crop will fail. Nitrogen (N) – nitrogen is largely responsible for the growth of leaves on the plant. Phosphorus (P) – Phosphorus is largely responsible for root growth and flower and fruit development. Potassium (K) – Potassium is a nutrient that helps the overall functions of the plant perform correctly.